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开放选修:2020年秋“国际法的理论与实践”课程:国际造法的若干问题

授课教师:村濑信也教授
 
课程简介
本课程将从介绍国际法渊源的基本理论、国际法在国内的执行方式和国际法委员会的基本情况等基础知识出发,重点结合国际法委员会目前正在进行的多项议题,以阐明国际法的编纂和逐渐发展的过程。
 
课程时间
2020923- 1230
每周三晚 18:40 - 20:30
 
授课方式
腾讯会议线上授课
 
课程注册
课程开放校内外师生选修和旁听。本校同学可在选课系统中选修《国际法的理论与实践》(课程号:029115902学分)。课程对校外同学无学分。
本课程的授课形式包括:教师主讲、学生课堂展示以及课堂讨论。
课程报名请联系课程助教冯丽羽,截止日期为918日,报名邮箱:intlawmaking2020@163.com。请注明姓名、机构、电话、邮箱地址,每次课前会发送腾讯会议链接及课程材料。
 
主讲人简介
村濑信也,日本上智大学荣休国际法教授、国际法研究院院士、联合国国际法委员会现任委员和“大气层保护”专题的特别报告员。2014-2017年间曾担任中国青年政治学院(现中国社会科学院大学)访问教授,201711-201912月任澳门新浦京8455com访问教授。2018年起兼任澳门新浦京8455com全球教席教授。
村濑教授是东京大学法学博士(1972)、哈佛大学澳门新浦京8455com访问学者(1974-1976)、哥伦比亚大学澳门新浦京8455com访问教授(1995)。其曾任联合国法律事务厅法律顾问(1980-1982)、亚洲开发银行行政法庭法官(1998-2004)、联合国国际法委员会委员(2009至今)、海牙常设仲裁法院仲裁员(2013至今),并于2011年入选国际法研究院副院士、2017年入选院士,是当今国际法学界公认的国际法大家,在国际法基本理论、国际环境法等领域有深厚造诣。
 
课程大纲
第一周(923日)
“传染病与国际法”讲座
第二周(930日)
课程导引、国际法渊源
第三周(1014日)
司法中的法律渊源:国际法院适用的法律
第四周(1021日)
国际法在国内法和国内法院中的实施、中国对国际法的适用
第五周(1028日)
国际造法基础
第六周(114日)
国际法委员会(ILC)概览、对国际法的编纂和逐渐发展
第七周(1111日)
ILC专题(1):习惯国际法的识别
第八周(1118日)
ILC专题(2):条约解释中的嗣后协定与嗣后实践
第九周(1125日)
ILC专题(3):国际法中的强行法
第十周(122日)
ILC专题(4):条约的临时适用、ILC专题(5):一般法律原则
第十一周(129日)
ILC专题(6):灾难中的个人保护
第十二周(1216日)
ILC专题(7):危害人类罪、ILC专题(8):国家官员对外国刑事司法管辖的豁免
第十三周(1223日)
ILC专题(9):武装冲突中的环境保护
第十四周(1230日)
ILC专题(10):大气层的保护
 
 
International Lawmaking
Selected Problems
Syllabus
(Wednesdays, 18:40 -20:30: On-line)
23 September 2020 - 30 December 2020
Professor: Dr. Shinya Murase
Professor Emeritus, Sophia University, Tokyo; Visiting Professor at PKU; Member of the UN International Law Commission; Member of l’Institut de droit international
This course is given in English. [The content and the order of lectures are subject to change.]
 
Basic Reading Material:
(1) 村瀬信也『国際立法―国際法的法源論』(秦一禾訳)中国人民公安大学出版社、2012年 (Get a UBS copy from TA) (参照:陳一峰「国際造法問題的理論再造:評?村瀬信也『国際立法—国際法的法源論』」中国社会科学院国際法研究所『国際法研究』(2014.01) pp.122-128)
(2) S. Murase, International Law:An Integrative Perspective on Transboundary Issues, Sophia University Press, 2011. (Get a UBS copy from TA)
(3) For Documents of the UN International Law Commission, see: http://legal.un.org/ilc/index.shtml 
(4) For ICJ judgments and advisory opinions, see:http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/index.php?p1=3
(5) For PCA decisions, see: http://www.pca-cpa.org
(6) For ITLOS decisions, see: https://www.itlos.org
(7) Collection of treaties and judicial decisions, as necessary.
 
Special Lecture: Epidemics and International Law (Wednesday, 23 September)
Basic Reading: Shinya Murase, “Epidemics and International Law” (manuscript)
To register: intlawmaking2020@163.com
 
PART ONE: Sources of International Law
 
Introduction  (Wednesday, 30 September)
(1) Life of Shinya Murase in brief: How I became an international lawyer.
(2) Integrating Theory and Practice in international law (consistency matters!)
(3) The Purpose of the study on the sources of international law
For what do we study the Sources of international law?: Filling the gaps (lacuna) in international law through “interpretation” of lex lata (law as it exists)
(4) International lawmaking for lex ferenda (law as it ought to be)
Readings: S. Murase, “International Law as a Profession” (Statement at the 50th ILC International Law Seminar, July 2014) 
(1) Chap.1, Sec 2; The Lotus (PCIJ 1927); Nuclear Weapon (ICJ 1996); Kosovo’s Unilateral Declaration of Independence (2010)
Questions to be discussed
(1) What is the Role of “Theories” in the Practice of International Law?
(2) Differentiation between Interpretation and Lawmaking
 
Sources of International Law
(1) Different Meanings of “Sources”
(2) Material and Formal Sources: Dialectic Relationship between the two.
(3) Treaties and Customary International Law, and their Interrelationship
(4) “Hard” Law and “Soft” Law
(5) From Sources of International Law to International Lawmaking
Readings: (1) Chap.1, Sec.1; Asylum (ICJ 1950), North Sea Continental Shelf (ICJ 1969)
Questions to be discussed
(1) Are There Any Other Sources of International Law that should be considered?
(2) What is the meaning of the study on the Sources of International Law?
(3) What is the role of “Sources” in the dispute Settlement Process?
(7 October is a holiday in China.)
 
Judicial Sources: Applicable Law of ICJ  (Wednesday, 14 October)
Article 38 (1) of the Statute of ICJ:
a.  international conventions; 
b.  international custom; 
c.  the general principles of law; 
d.  judicial decisions and the teachings of the most highly qualified publicists of the various nations, as subsidiary means for the determination of rules of lawReadings: (1) Chap.2, Sec.1; Stefan Talmon, “ICJ and Customary International Law”
Relevant cases: North Sea Continental Shelf (1969); Tunisia v. Libya Cont. Shelf case (ICJ 1982)
Questions to be discussed
(1) Norm-creating Character of Treaties?
(2) How many States’ consent do we need for ascertaining Customary Law?
(3) How many years do we need for a Customary Norm to be created?
  
 
Article 38 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties
(1) Article 38 as an exception to pacta tertiis rule
(2) Meaning of the phrase “recognized as such” in Article 38
Relevant case: Obligation to Prosecute or Extradite (Belgium v. Senegal) ICJ 2012.
Readings: (1) Chap.2, Sec.2
Other Sources:
Soft Law
Unilateral Measures based on domestic law: Opposability
Relevant Cases: Fisheries Jurisdiction case (UK v. Iceland, ICJ 1974)
 
Implementation of International Law by Domestic Law and Courts  (Wednesday, 21 October)
(1) Relationship between International Law and Domestic Law
a. Monism (supremacy of domestic law v. supremacy of international law)
b. Dualism
c. Theory of coordination
(2) Adoption of Treaties into Domestic Law
a. Incorporation
b. Transformation
(3) Adoption of Customary International Law into Domestic Law
a. Incorporation
b. Transformation
(4) “Legal effect” v. “Applicability” of international law in domestic law (courts)
“Self-Executing” treaties and customary international law
Relevant case: Kokaryo (Guanghualiao) Dormitory Case
Readings: (1) Chap.2, Sec.3; Murase, International Law (English), Chap. 14, pp. 377-387. (2) T. Kitamura, “Japanese Supreme Court Judgment in the so-called ‘Kokaryo’ Case”, Chinese Journal of International Law, vol.7 (3), 2008, pp. 713-720. http://chinesejil.oxfordjournals.org/content/7/3/713.full?sid=155d67f0-27b2-48e7-bced-dee0cfe80c32; (3) Nisuke Ando, “The Khoka-Ryo Case and International Law: A Critique of the Japanese Supreme Court Decision,” Japanese Yearbook of International Law, Vol. 53 (2010) pp. 1-18.
Questions to be discussed:
What are customary international rules to determine the relevant issues such as the status of the “de-recognized State”? Assuming that the dormitory belongs to China, how can she make a legal claim under international law? Could we go to ICJ?
 
China’s system regarding adoption of international law
(1) Monism/Dualism?; Adoption or Transformation?
(2) Treaty-making power in China? Recognition of customary international law?
(3) Domestic law effect and applicability of treaties and customary international law?
Reading material: Congyan Cai, “International Law in Chinese Courts during the Rise of China”, American Journal of International Law, Vol. 110, 2016, pp. 269-288; Li Zhaojie, “Effect of Treaties in Domestic Law: Practice of the People's Republic of China”, 16 Dalhousie L.J. 62-97 (1993)
 
PART TWO: International Law Commission
 
Basis of the International Lawmaking  (Wednesday, 28 October)
(1) History of International Lawmaking
(2) The Hague Peace Conferences of 1899 and 1907
(3) International Lawmaking under the League of Nations
(4) International Lawmaking under the United Nations
(5) UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982)
(6) A Future Convention on the Law of the Atmosphere?
(7) One Belt, One Road
Readings: Chap.3, Sec.1; Murase, An Observation on China’s Initiative of One Belt, One Road (manuscript)  
  
Overview of the International Law Commission (ILC)  (Wednesday, 4 November)
(1) History
(2) Membership
(3) Topic Selection
(4) Drafting, Adoption, Post-adoption Process
Readings: Chap.3, Sec.2; C. Tomschat, “International Law Commission: An Outdated Institution?”, German Yearbook of International Law, vol. 49 (2006), pp. 77-105; S. Murase, “Comments on the Working Method of the Commission,” ILC 70th Anniversary Workshop, July 2018, Geneva (manuscript).
Questions to be discussed
(1) Do we still need ILC today? Any “reason d’être”?
(2) Any Need for Reform?
 
Codification and Progressive Development of International Law
Reading: Donald McRae, “Interrelationship of Codification and Progressive Development in the Work of the International Law Commission,” Kokusaiho Gaiko Zassi (The Journal of International Law and Diplomacy), Vol. 111, No. 4, 2013, pp. 75-94.
 
ILC Topic (1): Identification of Customary International Law  (Wednesday, 11 November)
(1) Background of the topic
(2) Definition and Constituent Elements of Customary International Law
(3) Usefulness of the topic
Readings: ILC Report 2016, Chapter V; Official Records of the General Assembly at its Seventy-third Session, Supplement No. 10(A/73/10), Report of the International Law Commission, Seventieth session, 2018, (ILC Report 2018), Chapter V, pp. 117-156.  Murase’s comments in 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2018 https://s-murase.blog/2019/11/17/murase-comments-on-customary-international-law-at-ilc-2012-2018/;
ILA London Statement on the Formation of Customary International Law, 2000, Conference Report London 2000.pdf.; Stefan Talmon, “Determining Customary International Law: The ICJ’s Methodology and the Idyllic World of the ILC,” EJIL Talk!, 3 Dec. 2015. http://www.ejiltalk.org/ determining-customary-international-law-the-icjs-methodology-and-the-idyllic-world-of-the- ilc/.
Roberto Ago, “Positive Law and International Law”, American Journal of International Law, Vol. 51, No. 4, 1957, pp. 691-733; Ditto, “Science juridique et droit international”, Recueil des cours, Vol. 90, 1956, p. 849, pp. 928-940; Maurice H. Mendelson, “Formation of International Law and the Observational Standpoint”, (Appendix to the First Report of the International Committee on the Formation of Rules of Customary International Law), in ILA, Report of the 63rd Conference(Warsaw, 1988), p. 941; Maurice H. Mendelson, “The Formation of Customary International Law”, Recueil des cours, Vol. 272, 1998, pp. 157-410; Michael Reisman, “International Incidents: Introduction to a New Genre in the Study of International Law”, The Yale Journal of International Law, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1984, pp. 1-20. Questions to be discussed
(1) Usefulness of the topic
(2) Methodology
(3) Final form: Conclusions
   
ILC Topic (2): Subsequent Agreement and Subsequent Practice in Treaty Interpretation  (Wednesday, 18 November)
(1) Background of the topic
(2) Identification of Subsequent Agreements and Practice
(3) Evolutionary Interpretation
Readings: Official Records of the General Assembly at its Seventy-third Session, Supplement No. 10(A/73/10), Report of the International Law Commission, Seventieth session, 2018, (ILC Report 2018), Chapter IV, pp. 11-116; Murase’s comments 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2018; Murase’s paper on the “Pathology of Evolutionary Interpretation”;
Relevant Judicial Cases
Questions to be discussed
(1) Usefulness of the topic
(2) Assessment of Evolutionary Interpretation
(3) Final form: Conclusions
   
ILC Topic (3): Peremptory Norms (Jus Cogens) of International Law  (Wednesday, 25 November)
(1) Are there really jus cogens norms in international law?
(2) Jus Cogens in the Law of Treaties and Law of State Responsibility
(3) Examples of jus cogens norms
Readings: ILC Report, 2019, Chapter V), pp. 141-208. Murase’s comments
https://s-murase.blog/2019/11/17/murase-comments-on-jus-cogens-at-ilc-2016-2019/
Questions to be discussed
(1) Does international law have a hierarchy?
(2) Does Jus Cogens have the same meaning in the Law of treaties and in the Law of State Responsibility?
(3) Final form: Conclusions
 
ILC Topic (4): Provisional Application of Treaties (Wednesday, 2 December)
(1) Background of the topic
(2) Usefulness of the topic
Readings: ILC Report 2018, Chapter V; Murase’s comments in 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2018. Yukos Universal Limited (Isle of Man) v. The Russian Federation, UNCITRAL, PCA Case No. AA 227 https://pca-cpa.org/en/cases/61/
Questions to be discussed
(1) Usefulness of the topic
(2) Domestic Constitutions on Ratification
 
ILC Topic (5): General Principles of Law
Readings: ILC Report 2019, Chapter IX, pp.329-339; Murase’s comments in 2019, https://s-murase.blog/2019/11/17/murase-comments-on-general-principles-of-law-2019/
 
ILC Topic (6): Protection of Persons in the Eventof Disasters  (Wednesday, 9 December)
(1) Background of the topic
(2) Usefulness of the topic
Readings: ILC Report 2016, Chapter IV; Murase’s comments in 2011, 2012, 2013 2014 and 2015;
Questions to be discussed
(1) Responsibility to protect (R2P)?
(2) How can we make the topic more useful? How do you think of the idea of elaborating a Model SOFA for Relief Activities?
 
ILC Topic (7): Crime against Humanity  (Wednesday, 16 December)
(1) Background of the topic
(2) Is there a need for this topic in view of the fact that the ICC Statute already covers this crime?
(3) Policy elements (widespread and systematic attacks)
(4) Legal persons’ responsibility
(5) Definition of Gender and LGBT
Readings: ILC Report 2017, Chapter IV; Murase’s comments in 2015, 2016 and 2017.
 
ILC Topic (8): Immunity of State Officials from Foreign Criminal Jurisdiction
(1) Background of the topic
(2) Immunity ratione personae
(3) Immunity ratione materiae
(4) Exceptions to Immunity
Readings: Special Rapporteur’s Fifth Report; ILC Report 2017, Chapter VII; Murase’s comments 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018; Pinochet Case (House of Lords, UK); Arrest Warrant Case (ICJ, 2001)
Questions to be discussed
(1) Is it proper for the ILC to grant immunity to those members of the Troika who have committed serious international crimes?
(2) Compare Article 27 of the ICC Statute with ILC Draft Articles.
(3) Draft Article 7 on Exceptions to Immunity (pro or con?)
 
ILC Topic (9): Protection of the Environment in relation to Armed Conflict  (Wednesday, 23 December)
(1) Relationship between Law of Armed Conflict (jus in bello) and IEL
(2) Provisions of ENMOD Convention and Additional Protocols
(3) The Notion of “Long-term, Widespread and Significant” Harm
Readings: ILC Report 2019, Chapter VI, pp. 209-296.
 
ILC Topic (10): Protection of the Atmosphere (Wednesday, 30 December)
(1) Inclusion of the topic
(2) Definition of the Atmosphere
(3) Scope of the topic
(4) Basic principles: Obligation of States, Sustainable and Equitable Utilization of the Atmosphere; Geo-engineering
(5) International Cooperation
(6) Interrelationships with other fields of international law
 (7) Implementation. Compliance and Dispute Settlement
Readings: ILC Report 2018, Chapter VI, pp. 157-200.
Questions to be discussed
(1) Is protection of the atmosphere a “common concern of humankind”?
(2) Is there any need for a comprehensive framework convention?]
 
 
 
 
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2020年9月1日